•Reduced CO concentration
•Reduced oxygen related defects
•Low impurity diffusions
•Reduced SiC inclusions
The final quality of the wafers is strongly depending of under which conditions the crystallization is taking place. When using high oxygen containing crucibles material in direct contact with graphite support, a high level of CO gas is introduced in the furnace atmosphere.
When using Steuler Solar crucibles, this problem will be eliminated since our crucible is reaction bonded with oxides only as small trace elements. As a non-oxide material, our crucibles will significantly reduce most oxygen related defects, improving minority carrier lifetime and the overall electrical performance of solar cells.
Our reaction bonded crucibles are made with very high purity raw materials and no reaction catalysts as iron or other metal oxides are added in the process. Several metal impurities that are known to reduce the electrical performance of wafers, are reduced with up to 90 % compared with traditional crucibles. As a non-oxide material, the diffusion mechanism from crucible to silicon melt will also be reduced in general.
With the reduction in CO atmosphere, also SiC ingot inclusions will be reduced. This is among other problems also related to the breakage of cutting treads during wafer sawing.